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Division of HHS: Allied Health Programs: Cultural Awareness in Health Care

Research and Resource Connections for Allied Health Courses

National Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) Standards

The CLAS Standards are used in Health Care.

The Standards are intended to advance health equity, improve quality and help eliminate health care disparities by establishing a blueprint for health and health care organizations. 

Encyclopedia of Multicultural America

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, 2000

This resource offers a variety of background source information to increase knowledge about a variety of cultures. Search within this resource for ethnic/cultural groups living in the US. Over 152 essays are included. Each essay covers topics such as immigration patterns, cuisine, traditional dress, holidays, health issues, family and community, education, religious beliefs and more. (if prompted for a password: access)

There are also reference books found here that deal specifically with Medicine and Religion (see provided list of resource books).


Scholarly Articles and Cultural Information

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Print resources

Cultural diversity in health and illness  610 Spe 2013

Caring for patients from different cultures 610.732 Gal 2008

Transcultural concepts in nursing care  362.17 And 2012

Health promotion in multicultural populations: a handbook for practitioners and students  362.1 Kli 2008

General Websites- Not all scholarly but informative

Library of Congress

Additional Resources at WAW Library

Additionally, research can be done at:  W.A.W Library @ ESU 

In library research is free; Must have membership to checkout- Membership $15 per year

M-Th 7:30 AM- 11:59 PM;

F 7:30 AM- 6:00 PM;

SAT 9:00 AM- 6:00 PM;

SUN 1:00 PM- 11:59 PM


Q: What does "Scholarly Article" or "Peer-Reviewed Article" Mean?

Coulter, P. (2016). Richard G. Trefry library: American public University System. Libanswers.

"Scholarly" and "peer reviewed" are often used synonymously, but they are not necessarily the same thing.   Peer reviewed articles are always scholarly, but not all scholarly sources are peer reviewed.   It may seem confusing, but it makes more sense if you think of "scholarly" as an umbrella term for several different kinds of authoritative, credible sourcesThese include:

  • Peer reviewed journals.  These journals primarily exist to publish the research findings of experts in a field. The articles that you see in these journals have been closely scrutinized by a panel of reviewers (also experts in the same field) before they are published.   
  • Trade or professional journals or magazines.  The articles in these periodicals are also written by and for experts, but there is no peer review.  The articles aren't limited to research...they may be news, best practice tips or opinion pieces. 
  • Government Publications  Many government agencies publish books, reports, data or statistics.  Government researchers, like those who publish in peer reviewed or trade journals, are often experts in their field.
  • Books.   Many researchers publish books or book chapters.  

How can you tell if an article is scholarly?  You will have to do some detective-work, but there are some telltale signs:

  • Author(s): Ideally, you should rely on information that has been published by an expert, someone who has studied the topic long and hard.    Most scholarly publications will list an author's credentials (their degrees -- M.S., Ph.D., Ed.D., etc. -  and the institution that they work for) along with his or her name.
  • Content:  Look for articles that cover a topic in detail (more than just a few pages long, typically).   It will probably include some kind of literature review, and discuss the work of other authors, in addition to any original research findings.  Make sure it cites its sources (a scholarly article will always have a "references," "bibliography" or "works cited" list). 
  • Audience:  Scholarly articles are written for professionals in the field.  You will probably notice a lot of technical language and/or discipline-specific jargon.  The tone will be formal.
  • Publisher.  Visit the journal's website to see what organization publishes it.  Professional associations, universities and government agencies are particularly good signs.  As you become more experienced, you'll also start to recognize major publishing companies in your field of study (Wiley, Elsevier, Sage, etc.).
  • Purpose and scope.  When you're on the journal's website, look for an "about" link to learn who the intended audience is and what kind of articles are accepted.
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